War and Japanese Animation: Hotaru no Haka
War and Japanese Animation: Hotaru no Haka
Lee Jay Walker
Modern Tokyo Times
Grave of the Fireflies is a very moving animation film which focuses on the innocence of children and the brutality of war. It is a film which blends into reality and it is easy to forget that it is an animation film because the two main characters are full of humanity and you feel their huge highs and tragic lows at all times.
In many ways I believe that Grave of the Fireflies (Hotaru no Haka) is in a class of its own because from start to finish you can see the reality of war. More important, it is not overtly sentimental from any nationalistic point of view and it does not portray victor or vanquished in any harsh light.
Instead it based on the strong bond between brother and sister and how they both try to endure the reality of war but not losing their childhood glee from rare moments of joy and fresh hope.
The film was written and directed by Isao Takahata and it was produced by Shinchosha, while production work was done by Studio Ghibli. The animation film is based on the novel by Akiyuki Nosaka which shares the same name. Nosaka fuses the novel with the reality of what happened to him and his family during this tragic period but changes the theme and direction of the two main characters.
The Grave of the Fireflies was intended as a heartfelt and sincere apology to the author’s sister who tragically died from sickness. This fact is clear because the passion of the characters and how the events unfolded could only have been written and expressed by someone who experienced such wrenching times.
Full credit must be given to Isao Takahata because even grown adults will do well not to cry or to feel the tragic loss near the end when the plot unfolds.
Also, Isao Takahata shows the simple beauty of nature and the animation reminds us of a time when the simple things in life offered so much and this is often lost in today’s world of commercialization.
More intriguing, is that this animation film does not have to turn to any ideology or to provide evidence of who is right or wrong. Instead, it is about two young children who are fighting against terrible adversity and how moments of rare treasure lights up their world.
The film also highlights the innocence of civilians and when people focus on anti-German sentiments or anti-Japanese sentiments during this period of history; it is worth remembering the millions of innocent Japanese and German people, and all other nationalities in a multitude of conflicts, which have been brushed aside by historians or the media.
Yes, we know that innocents are always killed in war but this film focuses on the inhumanity of war and of human nature. For the adversity that these two children face is not just the threat of allied bombings and the destruction that unfolds; but the film also shows the inhumanity of other family members who cared little about these two children. It also highlights the neglect of the Japanese people by their own government who could not understand the reality of what had befallen the people of Japan.
The film is based on the pre-teen Seita and Setsuko, his younger sister, and how he strives to protect her once they become orphaned. From the start you see Seita in Sannomiya Station and he is dying of starvation and in a terrible condition. Then a janitor just prods Seita and throws out a candy tin containing what he holds dear because inside the tin was ashes and bones.
After this the spirit of Setsuko and Seita are released and a cloud of fireflies can be seen. From this starts the story and Seita’s spirit then narrates the tragic events which unfolded during this brutal period and you have a flashback to the Kobe fire-bombings and the ending of World War Two.
Straight away the symbol of America’s power can be seen and this applies to B-29s and while the children escape, their mother who is already sick is injured severely during the bombing raid and shortly afterwards she dies from terrible burns.
Now their world is turned upside down but Seita focuses his energy on protecting Setsuko. Their options are now severely limited because they have been abandoned and they are in the midst of a brutal war. Therefore, Seita hopes to find solace with their aunt but in time she turns out to be a cold hearted lady and instead of feeding and caring for the children, she forces Seita to sell many things and in time the only thing left is a small tin of fruit drops.
The tin of fruit drops often props up in the film and the coldness of their aunt turns into major resentment and clearly she believes that Seita and Setsuko are a burden. Therefore, they leave and move into an abandoned bomb shelter and for light they find fireflies and fill their dark world with the beautiful light of nature.
However, the beautiful life of nature dies quickly and Setsuko is mortified when she finds out that all the fireflies have died. Their brief moment of joy ends all too quickly and Setsuko painfully asks Seita why the fireflies had to die and why her mother had to die.
Now their life is full of despair and anguish but Seita remains strong despite the light of Setsuko fading all too quickly. Seita is now forced to steal crops and loot abandoned homes during fresh bombing attacks but once he is caught then the desperation he faces grips him and in one last throw of the dice he takes Setsuko to see a doctor.
However, just like the American bombers which did not care about life and death or just like the Japanese military which did not care about the innocents they killed; then the same inhumanity and hopelessness is found in the doctor because he offers no solution or compassion. The doctor just ushers in a blunt statement that Setsuko is suffering from malnutrition and he provides no comfort or remedy.
Seita then hears about Japan’s unconditional surrender but for Setsuko the darkness of death is getting closer. When Seita returns to the shelter he finds Setsuko hallucinating because she thinks that she is sucking on fruit drops and despite Seita’s deep care and love it is all too late because Setsuko dies of starvation.
After this Seita cremates Setsuko, the sister he cherishes and cares deeply about, and he puts her ashes into the fruit tin which he carries and this, along with a photo of his father, and the memories of his mother; is all that remains of a life which is soon to fade because his candle is now very weak.
Then turning back to the train station where the story began you can see the emaciated body of Seita.
At the end you see the two orphaned children but the spirits of Seita and Setsuko are no longer skin and bones and filled with pain. Instead they are reunited and dressed in nice clothes and they are looking down on the city of Kobe.
This animation film is viewed by many to be an anti-war film but like any film you will have different interpretations. I myself believe it is about the tormented soul of a writer who witnessed so much pain and anguish and that the Grave of the Fireflies is about the struggle that he faced.
When turning to the bigger picture it is clear that you had countless numbers of Seita’s and Setsuko’s who witnessed the brutality of this period. Therefore, the war theme is obvious but the animation film focuses heavily on the darkside and coldness of human nature and not just the war.
It is not for me to say what the real meaning is or is not; instead if you have never seen this animation film then I recommend that you put this on your list.
Yes, this animation film is not new; however, it is a classic and timeless and not only this, it reaches the heart unlike other films. The brief highs are fantastically high but the lows are full of heartache and the film reminds us of the brutality of World War Two and the continuing struggle which rages in many modern day nations.
More than this, it highlights two innocents who are caught up in a tragic adult world and how inhumanity is not only at the drop of a bomb, but also within families and communities.
Grave of the Fireflies will always stay with many people because of the passion that it unleashes and because it focuses on the reality of life in dark times.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2zq7V89vhc (very sad scene)